1276 Pope Innocent V (died) (born 1225)
1633 The Holy Office in Rome forces Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe in the form he presented it in, after heated controversy.
1767 Wilhelm von Humboldt (born), German philosopher and diplomat (died 1835)
1783 A poisonous cloud caused by the eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland reaches Le Havre in France.
1807 In the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair, the British warship HMS Leopard attacks and boards the American frigate USS Chesapeake.
1813 War of 1812: After learning of American plans for a surprise attack on Beaver Dams in Ontario, Laura Secordsets out on a 30 kilometer journey on foot to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon.
1825 The British Parliament abolishes feudalism and the seigneurial system in British North America.
1839 Cherokee leaders Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot are assassinated for signing the Treaty of New Echota, which had resulted in the Trail of Tears.
1870 US Congress created the United States Department of Justice
1871 William McDougall (born), English psychologist and polymath (died 1938)
1874 Howard Staunton (died), English chess player (born 1810)
1874 Viggo Jensen (born), Danish weightlifter, target shooter, and gymnast (died 1930)
1874 Walter Friedrich Otto (born), German philologist (died 1958)
1887 Julian Huxley (born), English biologist (died 1975)
1897 Edmund A. Chester (born), American journalist and broadcaster (died 1973)
1898 Spanish–American War: United States Marines land in Cuba.
1903 John Dillinger (born), American bank robber (died 1934)
1906 Billy Wilder (born), Austrian-American director, producer, and screenwriter (died 2002)
1906 The flag of Sweden is adopted.
1907 The London Underground’s Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway opens.
1911 George V and Mary of Teck are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1919 Gower Champion (born), American dancer and choreographer (died 1980)
1922 Bill Blass (born), American fashion designer, founded Bill Blass Limited (died 2002)
1933 Dianne Feinstein (born), American politician, 38th Mayor of San Francisco
1933 Henry Birkin (died), English race car driver (born 1896)
1936 Kris Kristofferson (born), American singer-songwriter, musician, and actor (The Highwaymen)
1941 Ed Bradley (born), American journalist (died 2006)
1942 August Froehlich (died), German priest (born 1891)
1942 Erwin Rommel is promoted to Field Marshal after the capture of Tobruk.
1943 Brit Hume (born), American journalist
1944 Peter Asher (born), English singer, guitarist, and producer (Peter & Gordon)
1944 U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill.
1945 The Battle of Okinawa comes to an end.
1947 Howard Kaylan (born), American singer-songwriter (The Turtles, The Mothers of Invention, and Flo & Eddie)
1948 Todd Rundgren (born), American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Nazz, Utopia, and The New Cars)
1949 Alan Osmond (born), American singer (The Osmonds)
1949 Elizabeth Warren (born), American academic and politician
1949 Larry Junstrom (born), American bass player (38 Special and Lynyrd Skynyrd)
1949 Lindsay Wagner (born), American actress
1949 Meryl Streep (born), American actress and singer
1953 Cyndi Lauper (born), American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress (Blue Angel)
1957 The Soviet Union launches an R-12 missile for the first time (in the Kapustin Yar).
1960 Erin Brockovich (born), American lawyer and environmentalist
1964 Amy Brenneman (born), American actress, producer, and screenwriter
1964 Dan Brown (born), American author
1965 David O. Selznick (died), American film producer (born 1902)
1969 Judy Garland (died), American actress and singer (born 1922)
1969 The Cuyahoga River catches fire, triggering a crack-down on pollution in the river.
1970 Steven Page (born), Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist (Barenaked Ladies)
1973 Carson Daly (born), American television host
1978 Charon, a satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto, is discovered by American astronomer James W. Christy.
1978 Dan Wheldon (born), English race car driver (died 2011)
1984 Virgin Atlantic Airways launches with its first flight from London Heathrow Airport.
1987 Fred Astaire (died), American actor, singer, and dancer (born 1899)
1988 Dennis Day (died), American singer and actor (born 1916)
1990 Checkpoint Charlie is dismantled in Berlin.
2002 –Ann Landers (died), American journalist (born 1918)
2004 Bob Bemer (died), American computer scientist (born 1920)
2008 George Carlin (died), American comedian, actor, and author (born 1937)
2009 Eastman Kodak Company announces that it will discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film, concluding its 74-year run as a photography icon.