1571 Johannes Kepler (born), German astronomer (died 1630)
1654 Jacob Bernoulli (born), Swiss mathematician (died 1705)
1822 Louis Pasteur (born), French chemist and microbiologist (died 1895)
1831 Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard the HMS Beagle.
1836 Stephen F. Austin (died), American army officer and politician (born 1793)
1845 Ether anesthetic is used for childbirth for the first time by Dr. Crawford Long in Jefferson, Georgia.
1900 Hans Stuck (born), German race car driver (died 1978)
1901 Marlene Dietrich (born), German-American actress and singer (died 1992)
1915 William H. Masters (born), American gynecologist (died 2001)
1923 Gustave Eiffel (died), French engineer and architect, co-designed the Eiffel Tower (born 1832)
1927 Show Boat, considered to be the first true American musical play, opens at the Ziegfeld Theatre on Broadway.
1930 Marshall Sahlins (born), American anthropologist
1932 Radio City Music Hall, “Showplace of the Nation”, opens in New York, New York.
1942 Thomas Menino (born), American politician, 53rd Mayor of Boston
1966 The Cave of Swallows, the largest known cave shaft in the world, is discovered in Aquismón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
1968 Apollo 8 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean, ending the first orbital manned mission to the Moon.
2007 Benazir Bhutto (died), 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan is assassinated (born 1953).
2007 Riots erupt in Mombasa, Kenya, after Mwai Kibaki is declared the winner of the presidential election, triggering a political, economic, and humanitarian crisis.
2008 Delaney Bramlett (died), American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Delaney & Bonnie) (born 1939)
2012 Harry Carey, Jr. (died), American actor (born 1921)
2012 Salt Walther (died), American race car driver (born 1947)